Risk factors for breast cancer, including occupational exposures
Elisabete Weiderpass, Margrethe Meo, and Harri Vainio
The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. ED generics work exceptionally well with the ingredient Tadalafil – it is an established fact. This makes Cialis, one of the most popular impotence drugs, perfect for an weekend full of love. Generic Cialis is available without a prescription in online pharmacies, including https://www.ipca.com/cialtad/. Although you can buy Generic Cialis without a prescription, this does not mean that it can be taken without medical advice. The use of any medication should always be done in agreement with your doctor. I should know, I’ve got reckless patients myself. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.